N.Toneva, M.Peneva

Department of Pediatric Dental Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, MU Sofia

Temporary teeth eruption is a prolonged process, influenced by different pre- and postnatal factors. Aim of the present study was to establish the influence of the Fluoride and the Materna of the temporary teeth eruption.

Material and methods: It was carry out inquiry of 378 mothers with Fluoride and Materna acceptation through the pregnancy and the suckling. It was followed out the temporary teeth eruption by children with and without Fluoride and Materna acceptation through the first and the second year after delivery. For the results we used variation and alternative analysis and Steward-Fisher t-criteria.

Results: In our investigation was established that only quarter of the mothers were accepting Fluoride through the pregnancy and small part of them – through the suckling. In the Fluoride acceptation group was observed statistical authentic retarding of the teeth eruption. About quarter of children were accepting the Fluoride through the first year after delivery and through the second their count decreased in half. In the children group with Fluoride acceptation it was carry out statistic authentic retard of teeth eruption. The results was analogical with the Materna acceptation. Above 50 % of the mothers was accept Materna through the pregnancy and small part of them – through the suckling. In the groups with Materna acceptation was established retarded teeth eruption. The results was statistic authentic.

Conclusions: More than 50% of the mothers were accepting Materna and only quarter – Fluoride. The Materna and the Fluoride are retarding temporary teeth eruption. The later temporary teeth erupt, the more sufficient is the prenatal mineralization.

Keywords: eruption, temporary teeth,fluoride, materna


M.Georgieva, M. Peneva

Medical University – Sofia, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Pediatric Dentisry Department

Authoritarian style reveals powerful parents’ figure, who uses strong rules in child rearing. This parents do not give opportunity for choice, but create habits and values for children. It is interesting to check if this rearing style create confident children, who are prepared for adequate reaction in dental office or they are more likely to become anxious and with negative behavior.

Aim: The aim of the study is to find out authoritarian style in 4 to 6 years old children.

Materials: Influence of the authoritarian style on childrens’ behavior in dental office was determined in 250 children and their parents, who signature inform consent.

Methods: There are eight questions which determined authoritarian parents style. They are adopted for parents and children. The real presence of that education was find by correlation between answers of parents and children.

Results: It was established that 41,42% of children give evidence for presence of authoritarian parents style. Reliable lower number of parents (37%) give answers, which characterized this style. Index for positive authoritarian style for children is reliable higher than parents’ index. This indicates that children are more sensitive to authoritarian style than the parents realized. Higher percentage of children, rearing this way is proof for forming proper behavior habits in most of the children.

Conclusion: Most of the children are rearing in authoritarian style.

Keywords: authoritarian style, rearing, behavior


D. Fetfova1*, M. Yankova2

Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria

1Faculty of Dental Medicine

2Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine


Transitional or intermediate denture is a kind of preliminary construction for the period of fabrication of the final prosthetic construction as a fast and effective solution with psychoprofilactical effect.

Aim: Presentation of a clinical case in which we use patient’s old prosthetic constructions – upper partial denture and a metal-ceramic bridge for fabricating transitional complete denture.

Material and methods: The patient G. D. 73-year-old, with a partial maxillary denture replacing the premolars and molars and a metal-ceramic bridge in the frontal area, visited The Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia, in a class of Clinic of Prosthetic Dentistry. Her complaint was not only about lack of stability of existing constructions, but also phonetic and mastication discomfort. Clinical examination revealed that the teeth supporting the bridge were extracted, and the denture was retained to the bridge by single-arm clasps. The bridge was standing at a distance from the alveolar ridge because of recent extraction of all anterior teeth. The healing period after the multiple extractions, was not enough for forming the alveolar ridge for a final prosthetic construction. During the fabrication of the permanent construction, a preliminary transitional denture was made as a temporary solution.

Results and discussion: The interim immediate denture allows not only effective function in harmony with preserved speech and appearance, but also maintainance of the muscle tone and occlusal vertical dimension.

Conclusion: The construction that we made had profilactical, functional, esthetic and psychoprofilactical, effect.

Keywords: immediate complete denture, transitional complete denture, intermediate complete denture


K. Yovcheva, St. Yovchev

Medical University – Plovdiv, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Department of Orthodontics

Timely orthodontic and oral prevention are essential for proper development of the dentition. Modern digital technologies would be useful in informing parents about oral health of children.

Aim: Aim of our study was to investigate the opinion of parents regarding deadlines and recommendations for orthodontic prevention in children.

Materials and methods: We conducted an anonymous survey among 150 parents aged 25-45 years from different social backgrounds. Set are 7 questions with one possible answer. We sought the parents’s opinion if they receive a recommendation from pediatricians about when their child should visit the dentist for the first time and if they know when the first dental and when – the first orthodontic examination should be. We asked for their opinion on the influence of bad habits on the development of the dentition and whether the software application will help them in orthodontic prevention.

Results: 65% are of the opinion that they do not receive recommendations from pediatricians for their children to visit the dentist. Much of the respondents are of the opinion that the child should visit the dentist to 4 years of age. 85% of parents think that bad habits lead to orthodontic abnormalities. 35% believe that first orthodontic examination of the child must be at 3 years, and 65% – between 3 and 6 years. 70% of the respondents think that software application will help them in the oral prophylaxis of children.

Conclusions: A large number of parents believe that they receive no recommendations from pediatricians about when children should visit the dentist or orthodontist for the first time and that a software application would be useful in orthodontic prevention.

Keywords: survey, parents, children, orthodontic prevention


S. Alexandrov1, St. Yankov1, D. Dimitrov1, V. Hadjigaev1, V. Alexandrova2

1Assistent Prof. Depth. of Prosthetic Dentistry

2Assistent Prof. Depth. of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics

Medical University – Plovdiv, FDM, Depth. of Prosthetic Dentistry

The reproduction of the occlusal morphology, during direct clinical restorations, requires considerable knowledge about morphology and function. Besides time-consuming, the individual reconstruction requires fine modelling not only in static position but also during function.

Aim: A demonstration on model of a clinical technique for preservation of the occlusal morphology.

Method and materials: Using premade models, we have visualized the stages of the “stamp” technique. We have proposed our variation of its usage, implementing transparent additional silicone for bite registration. In the current situation we have used the Glass Clear (Detax, Germany).

Results: With the implementation of the presented technique a perfect match of the clinical situation before and after the restoration is achieved.

Conclusion: The proposed technique saves clinical time, and preserves the original anatomical form in detail. The composite resin materials which have the ability to be applied in layers thicker than 3 mm. the so called “bulk” composite resins are making this technique easily applicable. The ease of implementation of the proposed method gives ground for its usage in similar clinical situations.

Keywords: technique, morphology, composite


S. Alexandrov1, St. Hristov1, J. Georgiev2, St. Zlatev1, I. Hristov1

1Assistant Prof. Depth. of Prosthetic Dentistry

2PhD student Depth. of Prosthetic Dentistry

Medical University – Plovdiv, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Depth. of Prosthetic Dentistry

The wash impression technique is one of the most frequently used in the daily practice. One of the main drawbacks is the need to ensure adequate space for the corrective phase.

Aim: Modification and improvement of an existing method, with which adequate space around the prepared teeth is freed, ensuring a guided flow of the corrective silicone impression material.

Materials and methods: After the stage of preparation a composite resin material with low viscosity Metaflow (Metabiomed) is applied in the area of the cervical area and inside the gingival sulcus. The material is light cured following with the first impression alongside the putty phase OrmaPlus (Major, Italy), is applied. The light cured material – composite rings, is included in the first impression. Their removal ensures even quantity of the corrective material Sushy4 (Bisico, Germany), in the following impression phase.

Results: We have ensured sufficient corrective layer that reproduces the exact details of the preparation border.

Conclusion: The ease of use of the modified technique, makes it applicable when single and multiple teeth are prepared.

Keywords: impression, corrective phase, ring, method

27. Analysis in minimal invasive approach in axial reduction with chamfer finishing line from students of FDM – Plovdiv

M.Rusev, J.Georgieva, G.Todorov, D.Ivanova

MU – Plovdiv, FDM, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry

In our daily practice we often use to prepare teeth with chamfer finishing line.

It was organized a competition in the Department of Prostetic Dental Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv. The aim of it was to make preparation of natural and phantom teeth with axial reduction with chamfer finishing line. Students from 4th -5th course were participating.

Aim: To find out the differences in angles of preparation according to the long axis .

Мaterials and methods: We used working plaster models with natural and phantom teeth fixed in .Silicone keys made before preparation were used to check the reduction of teeth. They were cut in two planes facio-lingual and mesio-distal. The preparation was made with preselected burs. Afterward we took pictures from distance of 6 centimetres from the objects. We fixed some important reference points on the pictures: long axis ,a point of tangency to tooth surface. Angles of preparation were measured.

Conclusions: This method gave us the possibility to find out the deviation of degrees of preparated tooth surfaces.

Keywords: chamfer finishing line, angle of preparation, natural and phantom teeth


Kr. Hristov

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, MU – Sofia

Extrusive luxation results in damage to the periodontal tissues and the apical neurovascular bundle as the tooth is displaced in a coronal direction. Immediate treatment is necessary in order to save the tooth and its vitality, especially in immature teeth.

Aim: To present a clinical case of extrusive luxation and uncomplicated crown fracture of immature maxillary central incisor.

Materials and methods: Eightyear old boy is referred for dental treatment three weeks after he had sustained an injury, which had led to extrusive luxation and uncomplicated crown fracture of the right maxillary central incisor. The tooth is splinted and the exposed dentin is covered with resin modified glass ionomer cement. Loss of vitality occurs two months later, which necessitates conducting an endodontic treatment. Calcium hydroxide is placed in the root canal for one week, followed by creation of MTA apical barrier and filling of the canal with lateral condensation technique.

Results: The provided treatment protocol ensures saving of the tooth without clinical complications. Healing is observed on the follow – up radiographic examination.

Conclusion: Delayed treatment of luxated immature permanent teeth may lead to loss of vitality and disturbance in root development. Mineral trioxide apical plug method is a good alternative of classical apexfication technique using calcium hydroxide when treating permanent teeth with incomplete root development.

Keywords: extrusive luxation, incomplete root development, endodontic treatment, MTA


Tsv. Boyarova¹, P. Kolarova²

Medical University Sofia, Bulgaria

Faculty of Dental Medicine, Department of Periodontology

¹Assistant Professor, Department of Periodontology, Sofia

²Postgraduate student, Department of Periodontology, Sofia

The true combined perio-endo lesions are result from confluence of endodontic and periodontal lesions that at first developed independently. The clinical examination revels deep pocket and radiographic examination exhibits large periapical lesion on the tooth, communicating with deep angular defect up to the apical area. The prognosis of such teeth is questionable and they are extracted like hopeless. In the case as presented here extraction of questioned tooth would necessitate extensive and esthetically difficult reconstructionand in this case is recommended endodontic and periodontal treatment. The combined periodontal and endodontic therapy is difficult and clinical efforts must to be viewed as “heroic”.

Aim: To present clinical case with perio-endo lesion and solution by endodontic treatment and regenerative therapy.

Clinical case: A 28-year-old female presented untreated severe periodontitis and apical periodontitis on tooth 34. The clinical examination revels deep distofatial pocket with suppuration and gingival shrinkage and radiographically large periapical lesion communicating with angular bone defect. After initial phase of periodontal and endodontic treatment the patient undergoes regenerative therapy with Bio-Gide® and Bio-Oss Collagen®. Temporary bridge is made during healing process.

Results: One wear later there are clinical and radiographic sighs of healing: reduction of pocket depth and restoration of the morphology of interdental papilla and radiographically bone filling and reduction of radiolucency in the apical area.

Keywords: periodontitis, regenerative therapy, combined perio-endo lesions


Tsv. Boyarova¹, P. Kolarova²

Medical University Sofia, Bulgaria

Faculty of Dental Medicine, Department of Periodontology

¹Assistant Professor, Department of Periodontology, Sofia

²Postgraduate student, Department of Periodontology, Sofia

Free gingival grafts are the most used method to achieve gingival augmentation. According to the American Academy of Periodontology the indications for gingival augmentation are the following: to halt progressive marginal gingival recession; to improve plaque control and patient comfort around teeth and implants; to increase the insufficient dimension of gingiva in conjunction with prosthetic restorations and to prevent soft tissue damage in the presence of alveolar bone dehiscence during natural eruption or orthodontic treatment.

Aim: The aim is to approve the effectiveness of this approach in different clinical cases.

Material and methods: Some cases with free gingival grafts are presented to achieve gingival augmentation by placing them at the marginal or submarginal level. Root coverage is not the immediate and primary goal of these procedures.

Results: In all presented cases with free gingival grafts is achieved gingival augmentation, witch resolves the problems in conjunction with plaque control in the cases of advanced periodontitis; increases the dimension of attached gingiva in the cases with insufficient or lack of attached gingiva and frenulum pull and in the cases with gingival recession there is some root coverage.

Keywords: free gingival graft, gingival augmentation, gingival recession

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