Oral mucosal diseases in daily practice
The general dental practitioner daily encounters diseases and various pathological conditions of the oral mucosa, which have a variety of etiologies. These diseases manifest themselves generally uniformly, regardless of whether they are caused by local causes or are symptomatic of some general diseases, which creates diagnostic difficulties. Although most diseases of the oral mucosa are not dangerous to the life and health of the patient, the dentist must navigate among the wide variety of nosologies, as well as be able to distinguish, diagnose and treat the more common ones among them.
The leading principle in the exposition of the currant lecture is the clinical-morphological principle. In a systematized form, the lecture presents the main groups of oral lesions – white, red, pigmented, papillary, vesiculo-bullous, ulcerative. This arrangement creates organization in the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases of the oral mucosa. The dentist can quickly navigate the symptoms, including the observed change in a certain clinico-morphological group, compare and distinguish it from other diseases or conditions included in the same group. Thus, a relatively accurate clinical diagnosis is made and, if necessary, the patient is referred for additional tests (biopsy, laboratory tests, imaging) to clarify the final diagnosis. A part of the lecture is also devoted to the oral manifestations of socially significant systemic diseases, as well as the drug-induced conditions of the oral mucosa.
In each clinical-morphological group, the diseases are arranged according to the etiological factor. When it is known, the treatment is etiotropic and provides the best result. Most diseases of the oral mucosa are treated with symptomatic therapy. Although symptomatic treatment seems diverse at first glance, it is directed against the pathogenetic mechanisms of a given symptom. A critical review of the available therapeutic modalities is provided too. The lecture is richly illustrated with over 60 clinical cases of the author.